A citation reflects all of the information a person would need to locate a particular source. For example, basic citation information for a book consists of name(s) of author(s) or editor(s), title of the book, name of publisher, place of publication, and most recent copyright date.
A citation style (such as “APA” or “MLA”) dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.
A bibliography is an organized list of citations.
In an annotated bibliography, each citation is followed by a brief note—or annotation—that describes and/or evaluates the source and the information found in it.
A works cited (MLA style) or references (APA style) list presents citations for those sources referenced or cited in a particular paper, presentation, or other composition.
An in-text citation consists of just enough information to correspond to a source’s full citation in a Works Cited or References list. In-text citations often require a page number (or numbers) showing exactly where relevant information was found in the original source.
An abstract is a summary of an article or other work and cannot be used as if it were the full text. You should not reference or cite an abstract in a paper or presentation, but instead find the full text.
APA Style Guide
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for students, in the social and behavioral sciences. It provides invaluable guidance on all aspects of the writing process, from the ethics of authorship to the word choice that best reduces bias in language. Well-known for its authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system, the Publication Manual also offers guidance on choosing the headings, tables, figures, and tone that will result in strong, simple, and elegant scientific communication.
This manual is available in the library under the call number – BF76.7 .P83 2010
Some key points to style research papers according to APA style
The Title Page
|1||Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings|
|2||Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading|
|3||Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after the period.|
|4||Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after the period.|
|5||Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after the period.|
Reference for Books
Example – Single Author – Last name first, followed by author initials.
Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.
Example – Two authors – List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of “and.”
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
Reference for Periodicals
Example – Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
Reference List – Electronic sources
Examples – Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving
Article from a database
Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2013, March 3). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
For more information visit: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/